Assaf Kleiman

Beyond Israel and Aram

The Archaeology and History of Iron Age Communities in the Central Levant. Research on Israel and Aram in Biblical Times VI

[Jenseits von Israel und Aram. Archäologie und Geschichte der eisenzeitlichen Gemeinden in der zentralen Levante. Research on Israel and Aram in Biblical Times.]

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Published in English.
Assaf Kleiman discusses the archaeology and history of local communities in the central Levant that flourished in the shadow of Israel and Aram-Damascus. The study offers a new and exciting way to look at the political relations and cultural exchange between the indigenous populations and the elite groups that ruled over them from the 10th to 8th centuries BCE.
In this study, Assaf Kleiman discusses the settlement history and material culture of complex communities that flourished in the shadow of Israel and Aram-Damascus. A detailed examination of the finds from the Lebanese Beqaa, through the Sea of Galilee, to the Irbid Plateau, offers an exceptional portrayal of the developments experienced by these communities, before and after the emergence of the territorial kingdoms; these advances include the rise and fall of local polities, the adoption and rejection of certain cultural traits, and even the background for the dissemination of writing. The study provides, therefore, a new and exciting way to look at the political relations and cultural exchange between the indigenous communities and the elites that ruled over them. Rather than interpreting the local populations simply as »Israelites” or »Aramaeans,” the archaeological record reveals their diversity and highlights the discrete historical trajectories they followed from the 12th to 8th centuries BCE.
Survey of contents
1. Introduction
1.1. On the Formation of the Territorial Kingdoms
1.2. In the Shadow of the Deuteronomistic History
1.3. Between Israel and Aram-Damascus
1.4. Geographical and Chronological Frameworks
1.5. Research Organization
Part I. The Settlement History
2. The Lebanese Beqaa
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Key Sites
2.3. Regional Synthesis
3. The Hula Valley
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Key Sites
3.3. Regional Synthesis
4. The Sea of Galilee
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Key Sites
4.3. Regional Synthesis
5. The Golan Heights
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Key Sites
5.3. Regional Synthesis
Excursus A: The Cities of the Land of Garu and the Golan Heights
6. The Nuqra Plain
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Key Sites
6.3. Regional Synthesis
Excursus B: In Search of the Archaeology of the Damascus Oasis
7. The Irbid Plateau
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Key Sites
7.3. Regional Synthesis
Part II. The Material Culture
8. Architectural Styles
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Monumental Structures
8.3. Other Building Types
8.4. Residential Quarters
8.5. Summary
9. Ceramic Traditions
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Local Wares
9.3. Imported Wares
9.4. Decoration Techniques
9.5. Summary
10. Monumental Art
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Architectural Elements
10.3. Figurative Orthostats
10.4. Moon/Storm-God Steles
10.5. Summary
11. Mortuary Practices
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Intramural Burials
11.3. Burials Sites
11.4. Summary
12. Writing and Literacy
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Inscribed Objects
12.3. Royal Inscriptions
12.4. Summary
Part III. Synthesis
13. Between Local and Foreign Rulers
13.1. Introduction
13.2. From Crisis to Collapse
13.3. Foreign Invasions and their Consequences
13.4. Shifting Alliances
13.5. The Long-Term Perspective
14. Conclusions
Appendix A: Iron Age Sites
A.1. The Lebanese Beqaa
A.2. The Hula Valley
A.3. The Sea of Galilee
A.4. The Golan Heights
A.5. The Nuqra Plain
A.6. The Irbid Plateau
Appendix B: Inscriptions and Inscribed Items
Appendix C: Short-Lived Radiocarbon Samples

Assaf Kleiman Born 1985; 2019 PhD; 2019–22 post-doctoral fellow of the Minerva Stiftung at Leipzig University; since 2022 Senior Lecturer at the Department of Archaeology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel.


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